Roll-on deodorant

Deodorants  are substances applied to the body to eliminate body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration. A subgroup of deodorants, antiperspirants, prevent odor and reduce sweat produced by parts of the body. Antiperspirants are typically applied to the underarms, while deodorants may also be used on feet and other areas in the form of body sprays. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and may experience contact dermatitis when exposed to aluminium containing deodorants. The use of aluminium-containing antiperspirants has been linked with the systemic accumulation of aluminium which increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Personal care products are a potential contributor to the body burden of aluminium and newer evidence has linked breast cancer with aluminium-based antiperspirants. Human perspiration is largely odorless until it is fermented by bacteria. Bacteria thrive in hot, humid environments. The human underarm is among the most consistently warm areas on the surface of the human body, and sweat glands provide moisture, which when excreted, has a vital cooling effect. When adult armpits are washed with alkaline pH soaps, the skin loses its acid mantel (pH 4.5 – 6), raising the skin pH and disrupting the skin barrier. Bacteria thrive in high pH or base environments. Creating such an environment in the armpit makes it more susceptible to bacterial colonization. The bacteria feed on the sweat from the apocrine glands and on dead skin and hair cells, releasing 3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid in their waste, which is the primary cause of body odor. Underarm hair wicks the moisture away from the skin and aids in keeping the skin dry enough to prevent or diminish bacterial colonization. The hair is less susceptible to bacterial growth and therefore is ideal for preventing the bacterial odor.

Stick Deororant

Deodorants are classified and regulated as over-the-counter medication (OTC) cosmetics by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are designed to eliminate odor. Deodorants are usually alcohol-based. Alcohol initially stimulates sweating, but may also temporarily kill bacteria. Deodorants can be formulated with other, more persistent antimicrobials such as triclosan, or with metal chelant compounds that slow bacterial growth. Deodorants may contain perfume fragrances or natural essential oils intended to mask the odor of perspiration. Deodorants may be combined with antiperspirants — classified as drugs by the FDA — which attempt to stop or significantly reduce perspiration and thus reduce the moist climate in which bacteria thrive. Aluminium chloride, aluminium chlorohydrate, and aluminiumzirconium compounds, most notably aluminium zirconium tetrachlorohydrex gly and aluminium zirconium trichlorohydrex gly, are frequently used in antiperspirants. Aluminium-based complexes react with the electrolytes in the sweat to form a gel plug in the duct of the sweat gland. The plugs prevent the gland from excreting liquid and are removed over time by the natural sloughing of the skin. The metal salts work in another way to prevent sweat from reaching the surface of the skin: the aluminum salts interact with the keratin fibrils in the sweat ducts and form a physical plug that prevents sweat from reaching the skin’s surface. Aluminum salts also have a slight astringent effect on the pores; causing them to contract, further preventing sweat from reaching the surface of the skin. The blockage of a large number of sweat glands reduces the amount of sweat produced in the underarms, though this may vary from person to person. Aluminium chlorohydrate and aluminium zirkonium tetrachlorohydrate glycine complex are the most frequent active ingredients in commercial antiperspirants.[11] A popular alternative to modern commercial deodorants is ammonium alum, which is a common type of alum sold in crystal form and often referred to as a deodorant crystal. It has been used as a deodorant throughout history in Thailand, the Far East, Mexico and other countries. Deodorants and antiperspirants come in many forms. What is commonly used varies in different countries. In Europe, aerosol sprays are popular, as are cream and roll-on forms. In the United States, solid or gel forms are dominant. The first commercial deodorant, Mum, was introduced in the late nineteenth century. The modern formulation of the antiperspirant was patented by Jules Montenier on January 28, 1941. This patent addressed the problem of the excessive acidity of aluminium chloride and its excessive irritation of the skin, by combining it with a soluble nitrile or a similar compound. This formulation was first found in “Stopette” deodorant spray, which Time Magazine called “the best-selling deodorant of the early 1950s”. “Stopette” gained its prominence as the first and long-time sponsor of the game show What’s My Line?, and was later eclipsed by many other brands as the 1941 patent expired. Information Courtesy of Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deodorant.